Die Casting mould uses the exterior modified research of steel H13
- source:ZIEG CNC Machining
Com reorganize: 1.
Die Casting mould and pattern of Die Casting of H13 home nonferrous metal use H13 generally to heat up mould steel. Alleged heat makes a pattern is to show to heating the metal to recrystallization temperature above or alloy undertake plasticity metabolic and the nonferrous metal suppress to liquid state shape the mould of production component. The Die Casting mould that serves as nonferrous metal should have undermentioned requirement commonly with steel: (1) have higher temper by dipping in water to appear a gender, cooling strength can be used when heat treatment lesser medium and have lesser heat treatment to be out of shape; (2) have fight hot tearing sex and heat-resisting exhaustion high to fight force, make the mould is endured stimulate Leng Ji heat to form crackle and the crackle that form not easily to expand not easily, prevent mould be no longer in force; (3) have tall heatproof bate ability and fight high temperature to wear away ability, make the mould maintains particular high temperature strength and dimension stability; (4) have what fight liquid state metal high to stick solder (Soldering) with chemical and erosive injury, home comes with the frit caustic of metal of fused liquid state token. Want to achieve these holding <> concurrently to have high temperature intensity and tall toughness demand, have higher high temperature again hardness and fight wear away ability, basically decide by the chemical composition of steel, content of the carbon in be being used commonly (0.
35 ～ 0.
45 ％ ) and contain the alloying element such as Cr, W, M0 and V, alloying element gross is in 6~25% limits. Be in the United States, heat makes mould steel cent be 3 kinds: Chromic heat makes mould steel, tungsten heat up mould steel and molybdenum heat to make mould steel, name with H entirely. It is H10 ～ H19 respectively, h21~H26, with H42, H43 . The steel that is used at model of Al alloy Die Casting is planted, use H13 steel very generally at present, it belongs to the first kind. Domestic steel grade is 4Cr5M0SiVl. The hot fatigue sex that home uses more 3Cr2W8V steel previously and toughness appear insufficient. The quantity containing carbon of H13 steel is in 0.
5 ％ are the following. American AISIH13, UNST20813, ASTMA681(latest edition) the quantity containing carbon of the H13 of H13 steel and FEDQQ-T-570 sets for (0.
32 ～ 0.
45) ％ , it is all H13 carbon is contained to estimate range in steel the widest. The quantity containing carbon of the 4Cr5M0SiV1 in our country GB/T1299 and YB/T094 and SM4Cr5M0SiV1 steel grade is (0.
32 ～ 0.
42) ％ and (0.
32 ～ 0.
45) ％ . German DIN17350X40CrM0V5-1 and WNr1.
The quantity containing carbon of 2344 steel is (0.
37 ～ 0.
43) ％ , the range that contain carbon is narrower  . The gauge of advanced H13 steel containing carbon in be opposite in NADCA207-90 of standard of association of North America Die Casting is surely (0.
37 ～ 0.
42) ％ . Chromium and other carbide form an element to carry what appear sexual become reconciled for having higher temper by dipping in water to steel to fight bate ability together, so this steel falls in empty cold condition can temper by dipping in water is hard. In 6barN2 gas vacuum processing condition falls but temper by dipping in water appears a diameter to be 160mm . Inhomogenous rate of Dan Ge that increases initiate to increase carbide, metastable can appear to decide in causing steel in all brilliant carbide, home can use this kind of carbide commonly now steel of tall carbon chromic bearing relative standard gives assess  . Of chromic content increase the hot strength that is helpful for increasing material, but adverse to toughness. Molybdenum and tungsten increase in material, somebody puts forward  , (1/2W+M0) the capacity comes when 1 ％ above, can make 500 ℃ above has stuff taller hardness still is obtained when temper, have hardening capacity 2 times. 2 hardening capacity of H13 steel are not apparent, can refer to a data  . Raise the content of V, the quantity that is like V by 0.
4 ％ (SKD6, be equivalent to H11) rise to 1% , make H13 steel (SKD61) hot intensity and thermal stability rose, at the same time V also increases water to rinse fight force, it is to raise leach to erode actually wear away fight force (Erosivewear)  . Additional, the W, M0, V, Nb element that forms M6C and MC carbide is added in steel, can refine to austenite grain, after also making dissolve enters austenite, sclerotic result produces 2 times in temper process. The carbide that forms to the affiliation of Cr is M23C¬6 model, its basically dissolve when 1100 ℃ austenite is changed, (the temperature that all dissolve enters austenite is 1160 ℃ ) , this changes the optimal austenite that decides H13 steel temperature to be in 1020 ～ inside 1080 ℃ limits  . The amount containing Si that contains Cr to heat up mould steel is in 0.
80 ～ 1.
20 ％ , only H19 steel contains Si to measure for 0.
20 ～ 0.
50 ％ . Outside the quantity of Si increasing to be affected besides solid dissolve aggrandizement in steel, it can improve the high temperature of steel to fight oxidation ability, till 800 ℃ (1475 ℉) . But Si has caustic to rise at toughness. The development of H13 steel is undertaking to the 2nd phase of low Si tall M¬0 now, (developing the first level is to raise the material of H13 steel to be mixed character heat treatment level) . People already realised the effect of low Si basically has gradually: Reduce material slant analyse, improve macrostructure even degree; Decrease caky when fluid / super-cooling of the composition on solid interface, the microcosmic organization that improves crystallization and austenite grain are refined; The toughness that raises steel and fight hot tearing ability and crackle of exhaustion of bring down high temperature to expand speed and crackle of high temperature creep expand rate; Delay the change of body of shellfish family name of steel. Increase the amount of M0 to 3 ％ left and right sides at the same time, the composition limits of the SKD61 of tall M0 of Japanese low Si is: C (0.
30 ～ 0.
40 ％ ) , Si (0.
05 ～ 0.
30) , Cr (4.
9 ～ 5.
5% ) , M0 (2.
0 ～ 3.
5 ％ ) with V (0.
50 ～ 1.
20 ％ ) . Corresponding the German steel grade of low Si tall M0 is 1.
2367, its composition is C0.
40 ％ , si0.
40 ％ , cr4.
95 ％ , m03.
0 ％ and V0.
9 ％ . The volume of M0 rises to 3.
0 ％ , make the temper by dipping in water of steel appears a gender to rise, the separate out that prevents carbide of austenite crystal boundary and delay change of body of shellfish family name; Raise temper to fight force and toughness; Increase high temperature intensity and strength of high temperature creep; Rise fight hot tearing ability. About delaying change of body of shellfish family name, have data news: To 610 × the 3bar of H13 module classics of 203 × 500mm (make an appointment with 3atm) the capacity of system of shellfish family name of the core after gas oil and surface is amounted to 70 ％ and 40% , and steel of tall to low Si M0SKD61 is corresponding and only 2 ％ and 1% . This rises to mould service life very advantageous. The M0 amount that a kind of of our country new-style heat makes mould steel 3Cr3M03VNb also is 3% (limits is 2.
70 ～ 3.
20 ％ ) , the quantity of Si is ≤ 0.
60 ％ , a reason with its good performance also should ascribe to of low Si tall M0. 2.
The service life of the mould of exterior modified Die Casting of H13 steel decides at a lot of elements: The rationality that the mould designs, mould material chooses validity, the reasonable and correct formulate of mould machining and heat treatment craft, the use condition that still should involve a mould of course and safeguard. Among them the quality of mould material and heat treatment are quite main crucial factor. Heat treatment should include the exterior modified of the heat treatment of integral workpiece and workpiece. Relevant standard basically has auto industry of standard of association of North America Die Casting, France the standard of association of iron and steel of meeting, Germany, material association and Die Casting association, return those who have car of general motors, Ford to recommend a standard to wait. Mix to heat treatment of H13 steel whole it is very important to detect, we will have additionally talk only. The exterior modified of H13 steel forging die and model of aluminium alloy Die Casting basically is in at present the following two respects: (1) ferrite nitrogen carbon in all ooze and sulfur nitrogen carbon in all ooze technology and (2) PVD coating technology. The research paper that has domestic and internationally in this two respects had publish, but news of particular industry application is not much. The French HEF group that pursues technology of material surface modified technically is in a few example that application of industry of modified of H13 steel surface covered with paper form on the conference internationally, at the same time technology of Ai Fu finishing (Shanghai) limited company (HEFShanghai) join limited company of technology of the finishing that abandon good fortune (TSShanghai) practice assembles the relevant document that is the same as abroad (especially the expert of NADCA and the job that CaseWesternReserve university teachs) make certain characterization. Home thinks generally, heating up the fatigue happening that chap is injured and heat up to wear away is the two big main reasons that heat up mould invalidation. This respect, relevant document of abroad narrates very clearly: The attaint of the mould and 3 mechanisms that restrict mould life to rise are: Metal of 1) liquid state sticks solder aluminously (Soldering) with chemical and erosive injury. 2) wears away and corrode. 3) heats up fatigue craze. Among them 1) is the most principal invalidation mechanism. They put forward to use ferrite nitrogen carbon in all ooze and ionic nitrogen spend the mould life that can improve tool steel significantly. Home points out about the experiment of aluminous frit caustic, when mould material hardness is 45HRC, not the rate of aluminous frit caustic of finishing is as high as 54.
When 90 ％ , should use carbon of nitrogen of saline bath sulfur in all ooze, rate of its frit caustic is only 0.
10 ％ , should use carbon of saline bath nitrogen in all ooze (soft nitrogen is changed) hind when adding PVD to handle, frit caustic rate is more apparent reduce to 0.
10 ％ . The effect of the exterior modified of steel of this shows H13 is very apparent. The optimal way that solves problem of modified of H13 steel surface is to be in putamen of Fu of besmear of mould material surface, make its not by embellish of fluid of aluminium alloy frit wet, at the same time the putamen of besmear Fu also gifts of mould material surface corrode wear away fight force. The Die Casting of aluminium alloy workpiece that HEF group gets lost an operating system to the car shapes the tappet in the mould (38CDV5, be equivalent to H13 steel) exterior deposit the CERTESSSD coating with 3 μ thick M, its hardness can amount to 4000 ～ 4500HV, use temperature can amount to 800 ℃ , return the cohere that can fight aluminium alloy, service life rises come 100 thousand times, it is the 6~7 that did not undertake deposit handles tappet times. Plant to how obtaining this not by the horniness film with wet embellish of liquid state metal, the D of ColoradoSchoolofMines(CSM) .
Zhong and J.
Moore  puts forward multilayer the structure that optimizes film is: ① undertakes exterior modified to H13 mould matrix first, if use ferrite nitrogen carbon in all ooze or ionic nitriding; 50 ～ of ② among the union of 100nm layer (Adhesioninterlayer) be like Ti or Cr; The intermediate excessive layer that ③ adjusts the hot leftover stress that causes as a result of Die Casting exercise between base material and coating (Intermediategradedlayer) , this applicable is finite yuan of imitate method is affirmatory, their citing thinks, this depends on picks working sclerosis layer, when working layer chooses Al2O3 layer, the layer transfers to be Ti among this - Al - N gradient layer; ④ job coating, with liquid state metal or glass not photograph embellish is wet (Nonwetting) , to Al alloy Die Casting, can use CrN, tiAlN, tiCB and Al2O3. Corresponding and multilayer structural film always thick in 5 ～ between 8 μ M. The coating of superior quality is obtained through PVD technology on mould workpiece, should rely on high-powered equipment and the craft parameter that can optimize a choice. This kind of equipment had better have undermentioned technology demand: Temperature of processing of ① besmear Fu is low; It is good that ② circles besmear sex; ③ coating deposit is even; ④ is used enhance ionization to lead a technology; The coating class status with precise ⑤ is controlled; The deposit rate with fixed ⑥ ; ⑦ can undertake multilayer and compound besmear; ⑧ can get the coat of accept rice structure; ⑨ has the working pattern of PVD and CVD; ⑩ can engrave corrode by the side of edge besmear Fu, acquire first-rate coating quality. French HEF group develops and applied plasma enhances magnetism to accuse to splash shoot (PEMSTM) the technology has accurate control to the deposit process of coating. Applied PEMSTM technology can achieve coating highest and theoretical density. Equipment of coating of HEF group vacuum and technology are in lead position on alive bound accordingly. Say wraparoundly, the main advantage of the equipment of HEF and technology depends on: 1) can is opposite independently ionic discharge and energy undertake controlling, get the coat of highest density and function thereby; 2) uses unique OES system to undertake metrical to plasma wavelengh, realize the accurate control of coating composition; All horniness coating that 3) obtains has accept rice class (≤ 20nm) structure; 4) low voltage, high vacuum spends the even bombard below the environment, can greatly effect of abate needle horn; 5) is in vacuumize while undertake heating, quickly purify water is divided, achieve high grade, efficient deposit result; 6) lowest handles temperature to be able to achieve 80 ℃ , can use at be opposite almost all material, include aluminium alloy and polymer material to undertake coating is machined; An equipment has 7) at the same time PVD and PACVD treatment mode, the technology that gives a client upgrades with sufficient support. French HEF group adopts technique of Ai Fu finishing (Shanghai) limited company already abandoned good fortune in Shanghai finishing technology limited company (Shanghai Song Jiang) the PVD/PACVD device that investment introduces two kinds of series, can besmear the putamen coating of Fu basically has now CrN, CrxNY, TiN, TiBN, TiCN, TiALN is mixed kind of diamond DLC film, the exterior modified that they wait for to the H13 steel base material before PVD film uses carbon of liquid sulfur nitrogen in all ooze or liquid nitrogen carbon in all ooze also has bright distinguishing feature, say to serve as Sursulf/Arcor (Sheshefu / A but) technology or Tufftride/Tenifer (merged into 2001 by its the German subsidiary Durferrit of HEF group is offerred) . Relevant introduction can be referred to this period advertisement and " mould project " this year the 4th period paper. Steel of 1)H13 of 3 last words is the uses generally Jiang Ren on the world hold provided heat concurrently to make mould steel, have high temper by dipping in water to appear gender and fight hot tearing ability. A lot of circumstances apply at creating pattern of aluminium alloy Die Casting. The domestic brand of 2)H13 steel is 4Cr5M0SiVl, developing to direction of low Si tall M0 now. The exterior modified of 3)H13 steel basically has ferrite nitrogen carbon in all ooze or sulfur nitrogen carbon in all the method such as ooze and putamen of deposit of physical gas phase, more advantageous method is these methods have reasonable combination. CNC Milling CNC Machining