Riveting in Sheet Metal Fabrication(snap-fit Dora)
- source:ZIEG CNC Machining
What is a Rivet?
A rivet is a mechanical fastener that consists of two main parts - a smooth cylindrical shaft and a head. The shaft is inserted through holes in the materials being joined. The excess shaft is then flattened into another head with a riveting hammer or other tools, creating a permanent joint. The rivet head on one side and the smashed excess shaft on the other side clamp the materials together tightly.
Rivets come in a variety of styles, sizes, and materials like aluminum and steel to suit different applications. Some common types used in sheet metalwork are:
- Solid/Round Head Rivets: These have a pre-formed head on one end and are versatile for many uses.
- Countersunk Head Rivets: With a flat, flush rivet head, these are useful when a smooth surface is needed.
- Structural Rivets: They have large, dome-shaped heads to withstand higher stresses.
- Blind Rivets: These can be installed from one side when there is only access to one surface.
When to Use Rivets for Sheet Metal
Rivets are recommended for joining sheet metal in many situations:
- When a joint needs to support shear loads or forces parallel to the sheets. The rivet shafts resist shearing between layers.
- When vibration resistance is important. Rivets maintain tight joints that won't loosen under vibration.
- For semi-permanent fastening. Rivets allow disassembly with drills but are more permanent than screws.
- For material combinations where welding is difficult like aluminum sheets or dissimilar metals.
- When appearance is a priority. Countersunk rivets can create smooth visible surfaces.
- In weight-sensitive applications. Rivets are lighter than welding or bolts.
- For quick repairs and maintenance. Rivets can be easily drilled out and replaced.
Proper Riveting Technique
Following good riveting techniques ensures tight, long-lasting sheet metal joints:
- Drill holes precisely aligned through all sheet layers using a drill press if possible. Match drill size to rivet diameter.
- Select a rivet length allowing 1/16” grip length (thickness of joined materials) plus 1/8” for the forming head.
- Insert rivets flush with material surface. Bucking bars hold rivet heads in place.
- Use proper rivet set matched to rivet head size and shape. Strike evenly until the set head is 1.5 times the rivet diameter.
- For blind rivets, grip sheets together tightly before pulling the mandrel to set.
- For structural and large rivets, use heavy rivet guns or pneumatic squeezers to form heads.
- Inspect set rivets to ensure both heads are tightly clamping material.
Rivet Strength and Spacing
The diameter of rivets significantly impacts joint strength. Typical spacing between rivets is 2-4 times the rivet diameter. Other factors influencing joint strength include:
- Rivet material - Steel is stronger than aluminum.
- Sheet thickness - Thicker materials require more rivet force.
- Grip length - Longer rivets have more shear area.
- Edge distance - 1.5 x rivet diameter minimum from sheet edges.
Proper rivet spacing distributes stress evenly across the joint. In critical applications, engineers may calculate load requirements and model rivet patterns before fabrication.
Rivet Alternatives and Limitations
For sheet metal assembly, rivets have both advantages and disadvantages compared to other joining methods:
- Lower cost than welding or bonding
- Easier disassembly than welding
- Vibration and impact resistant
- Lower strength than welds
- Not suitable for gas or liquid-tight seals
- Permanent fasteners
- Hole drilling required
Rivets are ideal for many sheet metal fabrication applications. However, alternatives like welding, adhesives, or threaded fasteners may be preferable depending on the design requirements. Consultation with a qualified fabricator can help determine the optimal joining method.
Riveting Tips and Tricks
Skilled metalworkers can employ various techniques to improve riveting quality and efficiency:
- Use self-centering rivet sets to align on hole center for uniform heads.
- Rivet in diagonal or zig-zag patterns across large parts to minimize sheet distortion.
- Apply sealants like silicone around rivets when leak resistance is needed.
- To avoid drill markings, use stop collars on drill bits for consistent hole depth.
- For hard-to-reach spots, use offset or articulating rivet sets.
- Thread locking fluid on rivet threads can prevent loosening of vibration-prone joints.
With an understanding of rivet styles, proper installation techniques, and the right tools, fabricators can produce professional quality sheet metal assemblies efficiently joined together with rivets. This versatile, economical, and relatively straightforward fastening method is a staple of modern manufacturing. CNC Milling CNC Machining